The most recent Economic Censuses for which data is available were taken in 2012. The data from this group of surveys is available online only. Here is the Census Bureau's Economic Census main page.
Economic data is available from the Censuses and from other surveys through American FactFinder. There is information about using this resource under the Recent tab.
Some useful guides to finding Economic Census information:
Datasets from the 2007 Economic Censuses are available through American FactFinder.
Not all older Economic Census reports are available online, but the Library has some reports in printed form back to the early 1960's. Consult this section of the Census Information in the Library LibGuide for more information. Also, for a complete collection of historical data (back to the 1967 Censuses), you can use the Census Bureau's FTP site. Ask a Librarian for assistance if you have trouble finding the data you need.
Remember that the classification schemes for Economic Census data have changed over the years, affecting comparability of the statistics. Specifially, the data is arranged by NAICS (North American Industry Classification System–used beginning with the 1997 Censuses) or by SIC (Standard Industrial Classification–used through the 1992 Censuses). These coding systems classify types of businesses, products and services. If you need to compare data from older Censuses with newer ones, the Census Bureau web site provides these NAICS Concordances.
Starting with the 1992 Agriculture Census, this data is produced by the Agriculture Department's National Agricultural Statistics Service.
Here are some links to NASS data:
The Census Bureau has developed Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics—a really amazing interactive tool that allows all kinds of mapping and visualization of employment and population data.
Their OnTheMap software produces detailed interactive maps like the one below, accompanied by lots of tabular data and customizable charts:
Note that some functions might not work with some browsers.
Here are links to their documentation and other helpful material (including detailed tutorials and guides giving step-by-step instructions for the different types of analysis that you can perform) and links to specialized functions available on the site, such as their Emergency Management OnTheMap: