NOTE that the Library ceased receiving new tangible government documents in Spring, 2016, and withdrew large numbers of tangible documents during the previous year.
America Preserved; a checklist of historical buildings, structures and sites. LC 1.2:H 62/7. 1994. Catalog of sites listed in the Historic American Buildings Survey and the Historic American Engineering Record; includes some photographs and other illustrations.
Historic America: buildings, structures, sites. LC 1.2:H 62/5. 1983. Contains essays on the work of the Historic American Buildings Survey and a comprehensive list of the sites recorded by the survey.
The Library has several books detailing the history of important government buildings in Washington. For example:
National Park Service Series
Many NPS publications are being digitized. Here is a portal to their electronic library. It includes a function for searching by park or site.
Also check the Archaeology tab for relevant resources, and some resources under the Military tab contain information on historical places.