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Citation and Documentation Guide

Guidelines and examples of citing information using MLA, APA, and other formats.

APA: Web Resources

Web Site:

johnxxx2000. (2007, November 7). Australian aboriginal music: Song with didgeridoo. [Video file]. Retrieved from

Gaiman, N. (2010, February 9). Now we are nine. [Web log message]. Retrieved from

Online Scholarly Project or Reference Database:

Willett, P. (Ed.) (2003, April 24). Victorian Women Writers Project. Retrieved from 

Electronic Journal Article:

Landauer, M. (2007, May). Images of virtue: Reading, reformation and the visualization of culture in Rousseau’s La Nouvelle Hèloïse. Romanticism on the Net, 46, n.pag. Retrieved from

Raja, M. A. (2007). [Review of the book Voices of resistance: Muslim women on war, faith, and sexuality, ed. by S. Husain]. Postcolonial Text, 3(2), 1-3. Retrieved from

Legal Cases:

Brown v. Board of Educ., 347 U.S. 483 (1954). Retrieved from 

Government Publication:

President’s Council on Bioethics. (2004, March). Reproduction and responsibility: The regulation of new biotechnologies. Retrieved from

Film or Video Recording:

Hallström, L. (Producer & Director). (1993). What’s eating Gilbert Grape [Motion picture]. USA: Paramount Pictures. Retrieved from

Basic APA Format for Electronic Sources

The following elements should be listed in the numerical order in which they appear. If an element is not applicable, proceed directly to the next element, and continue to the final element of the citation:

  1. Name of the author, editor, narrator, performer, or translator of the work.
  2. Date of publication (year, month and day, as available); if nothing is available, use n.d.
  3. Title of the work (first word and proper names capitalized; the rest in lower case).
  4. Title of the overall Web site (upper and lower case and italicized), if distinct from item 3.
  5. DOI (digital object identifier) or Retrieved from URL (uniform resource locator or web address).

APA: E-Mail

E-mail messages, interviews, and other non-recoverable personal communications are not included in the list of references in APA Style. See Section 6.20 (p. 179) of the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (2010).

APA Resources

Additional APA Resources

Online Tutorials