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Citation and Documentation Guide

Guidelines and examples of citing information using MLA, APA, and other formats.

APA: In-Text Citations or Documentation within the Text

Author’s Name in the Text:

It may be true, as Robertson (1970) writes, "in the appreciation of medieval art the attitude of the observer is of primary importance" (p. 136).

Author’s Name in Reference:

It is "in the appreciation of medieval art the attitude of the observer is of primary importance" (Robertson, 1970, p. 136).

Documenting a Long Quotation: (Four or more lines of typewritten text)

R. N. Stromberg (1966) offers his observation on European philosophical dynamism:

The great philosophers of the Middle Ages, long since rescued from the prejudices against

them and the charges that they were trivial or obscure—men like Anselm and Aquinas—

labored to assimilate Greek philosophy into Christianity, to plant in barbarian Europe the

rational outlook, seeking to shape one great tradition out of the Greeks, Romans, and

Christian Fathers. (p. 6)

Documenting a Paraphrase:

A study at Bellevue Hospital in New York City of 102 teenagers who attempted suicide showed that only one third of them lived with both parents (Fuchs, 1978, p. 74).

Documenting a Source without Named Author or Pagination:

          Artistic renderings are displayed as didgeridoo music plays in the video "Australian Aboriginal Music: Song with Didgeridoo" (2007).

Documenting a Quotation from a Bible:

The first time you make a citation from the Bible, state in the text of your paper the chapter and the verse of the book of the Bible you are quoting, along with the name and the version of the Bible you are using. For example: "Luke 12.27 in the Oxford Annotated Bible, Revised Standard Edition, says . . ."

From that point on, you can simply refer to the book, chapter, and verse you are quoting. For example: "And when Jesus finished these sayings, the crowds were astonished at his teaching, for he taught them as one who had authority, and not as their scribes" (Matthew 7.28-29).  

General Guidelines

  • Remember that information on the Internet might be removed or moved to another site when you try to find it later. It is a good practice to save the material you wish to use for your research.
  • Refer to a printed source, if available. Many Internet sources originated from print sources.
  • Find out from your professor which style format s/he prefers. The most commonly used styles at St. Mary's University are MLA (Modern Language Association) and APA (American Psychological Association).

*Disclaimer: There is not complete agreement among the guides presently available in citing electronic sources. These examples are simply provided as a guideline. Whichever format you follow, make sure that you are consistent throughout your work.

More Guidelines

  • Double-space entire list, both between and within entries on the Works Cited Page.
  • Entries must be alphabetized by author or, if there is no author, by title.
  • Use reverse indentation (hanging indent) for all entries.

APA Resources

Additional APA Resources

Online Tutorials